The most influential positions in the world have largely gone to men.
The top 500 positions in global human resources were held by women in 2014, according to the International Organization for Migration, and the top 500 jobs in the US are held by white men.
In 2017, women held 1,082 of the top 10,000 positions in STEM, including 2,068 in the sciences and 2,036 in healthcare.
But they held only 10.7 percent of the jobs in those areas.
And the top 100 jobs in engineering were held mostly by women.
The list also included some of the most powerful occupations in technology.
In healthcare, more than two-thirds of the senior management positions were held in female-dominated industries, such as healthcare information systems and health systems, said Chris Ostroff, an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Washington.
These days, many women are leading in these fields.
“I would argue that we are going through a gender transformation,” Ostrof said.
“We’re moving into a place where women are increasingly being promoted into these positions, particularly in the healthcare fields.”
The rise of women in leadership is part of a broader trend.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the percentage of men in leadership has fallen from 63.4 percent in 1979 to 62.7 in 2015.
But the number of women who hold leadership positions in government, business, and nonprofits has increased.
More women than men are leading corporate boards and in some industries, like finance and healthcare, Ostrofer said.
Women have also led major political campaigns in the U.S. and Europe.
But a growing number of men have also stepped up to lead for good.
According the American Association of University Women, more women than ever before have held senior executive and board roles in companies.
In addition, the American Economic Association recently released a report saying that women are now the most likely to be a college graduate, and more than twice as likely to hold a STEM degree.
The trend is reflected in higher salaries.
Women now earn on average $5,842 more than their male counterparts, according the BLS, and they are more likely to receive advanced degrees.
The average annual salary of a woman in her 40s who is in a STEM-related job is $81,000, according BLS data.
Women in leadership positions earned $78,000 more than men in 2014.
This has helped lead to more women taking advanced degrees, such the University at Buffalo’s Elizabeth H. Dominguez and Stephanie A. DeNardo, both associate professors of psychology, wrote in a 2017 study.
But it’s not all good news for women in STEM.
“In some ways, it is important to note that the percentage who hold these positions has increased,” Ostef said, pointing to the growing number who hold STEM-specific positions.
In 2015, for example, the UMass Boston-Massachusetts Institute of Technology held a conference titled “Women in leadership: Are we really taking the first step to equality?”
The event was held in an environment where there was a lot of focus on the impact of affirmative action policies on women.
“But in other ways, we have to ask: Is it really taking that first step?”
The BLS report also highlighted that women who did not have a STEM career in college still faced barriers, including a lack of access to information about careers in the field, and low pay.
“This is why it is so important to understand that the gender pay gap is actually very low for men, but it is extremely high for women,” Domingez and DeNardos said in the report.
“If you look at the pay gap, if you look only at women, the gap is very small.”
The gender pay gaps are a reality for some women, too.
In 2016, the Bureau in the United States and Canada released a study that looked at the salary data for women who had been hired as a STEM assistant, associate, or senior executive in the past decade.
The study found that, for every $1 a woman earned as a woman with a STEM experience, a man earned $2.10.
But even when women in the STEM fields are included, the gender wage gap still is large, the report found.
In a 2014 study of 1,000 employees in the Fortune 500, women made 84 cents for every dollar men made.
Women were also less likely to make the minimum wage and earn more in overtime than men.
And, of the workers surveyed, more men than women said they made more than $20,000 in compensation in 2017.
But that gap is shrinking, according Ostrofe.
“There is an increasing number of people who are making $40,000 a year, $50,000 per year,” he said.
Ostrofs study found there are about 1.3 million women in positions of leadership in the American economy, and about 1,400 of them